I gathered data on the specific languages i used on 3/6/17 and 3/8/17. I took a note of every time i code switched or used a different language all together. After  I finished gathering the data, I sat down and went over all the data and organized it into four main sections, which were formal, informal, text, and Urdu. So basically Urdu, the first language of Pakistan, was used only when i spoke to my parents, my wife or my one Pakistani friend at School. The texting was mostly just my wife and as for the informal language, that too involved my friends as well as my wife. The formal language that i used was very little as compared to others as i realized that i only spoke in a formal manner to either my parents, my professor, and my customers at work.

Lyiscott, J. I am Articulate.

Summary: This is a poem that talks about how people express themselves and define themselves through the use of language. Jamila Lyiscott talks about how her speech or use of language doesn’t define who she is. She does this by using different types of dialects throughout the poem, going from slang to formal and demonstrating that she can easily and fluidly move through different Discourses.

Evaluation: Being a multilingual person i often face the problem of associating different personalities/identities to the different languages i use. i can use this poem a s reference to this problem. Also i can use the different discourses  she uses in the poem for the different people i talk to everyday in my life.

Lowi, Rosamina. (2005) Codeswitching: An Examination of Naturally Occurring Conversation.

Summary: This essay is basically a study conducted by Lowi about the code-switching between spanish speakers  and english speakers over the use of telephone. Lowi uses the conversations between the two set of people to discuss as well as explain the use of code-switching as a discourse.

Evaluation: Considering the fact that i myself am bilingual, i can use Lowi’s work to relate to my own data that i collected for my 24 hour log. Lowi’s work also gives me a good idea of how my project might look like.

Swales, John. “The Concept of Discourse Community.” Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Boston: Cambridge UP, 1990. 21-32. Print

Summary:  In this essay the author explains that  discourse community consists of a group of people who link up in order to pursue objectives. Swales further explains how community involves discourse and discourse involves community.  Swales strongly beleives that speech communities  share linguistic forms. Swales argues that in discourse community, communicative needs of goals tend to predominate in the development and maintenance of its discoursal characteristics.A discourse community  has mechanisms of intercommunication among its members, and these members have a set of common public goals that everyone agrees upon.

Evaluation: This essay kind of compliments the previous essay and it can help me further understand what discourse is and how it is used in a community.

Annotated bibliography for project 2

Gee, James P. “(1989) Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics: Introduction. Journal of Education  Print.

Summary:  In the  “Literacy, Discourse, and Linguistics,” James Paul Gee explains the concept of discourse in “literacy studies.” The main argument that the author makes is that “the focus of literacy studies or applied linguistics should not be language, or literacy, but social practices.”(pg 483). Gee analyzes the different types of discourses and  explains in depth the meaning of discourse and it’s application by people in everyday life. Gee states that  we experience the primary discourse through family and friends at an early age. He strongly emphasizes that in order to gain a discourse, one must have social interaction.  He differentiates the dominant course which bring “social goods”(pg 485) and Non-dominant  discourses which“bring solidarity with a particular social network.”He believes it is importantly to fluently control secondary discourse. In the end Gee talks about a story written about a five year old kid, the story illustrates the practice of discourse through the use of filtering and transferring.

Evaluation:  Gee’s essay will prove to be a very helpful source to my project as he explains in depth the different types of discourses there are and their application by people in every day life. I can easily use the different types of discourses i use within the 24 hour log i record.


Annotated Bibliography


“George Orwell: Why I Write.” George Orwell: Why I Write. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2017.


Geaorge Orwell, in his article, begins by telling us how he grew fond of writing while he was just a child. Very soon he realized that writing was his passion and how he would see him self become a writer in the future. George explains to us that the main motives behind him writing were, firstly he wanted to seem more intellectual and smarter than the average joe, secondly he wanted to be remembered and acknowledged for his work way after he was no longer present in this world. George also mentions that one of the biggest reasons that he chose to write was so that he could be heard, so that his voice mattered and that it could be recognized by other people.  Georges main aim was to convey his political opinions to the world in a way that it spoke to the people. he truly believed that  without a political purpose, all of his work was all but lifeless.


George emphasizes on the fact that political purpose was a key factor for his work to gain excitement and have meaning. I mean i cant really argue with a person, without any personal opinion or political purpose, the writing would be as good as anonymous and boring.  If one is not interested in certain topic, it would be very hard to do research on it, let alone write an essay or article on it.


Irvin, Lennie L. “What Is “Academic” Writing?” Writing Spaces: Readings on Writing, Volume          1. Vol. 1. N.p.: Parlor, 2010. 3-17. Print..


This article is all about common myths about how to write that have been spread vastly over the years. The article very clearly yet calmly explains how one does not have to follow certain set of rules or steps in order to create a god piece of writing. it tells us that it is okay to have a shitty first draft, also that it is not necessary that everyone was a born a writer, you can develop over the years. Writing requires no set of skills to qualify one  to be a writer, anybody could be a writer. The most common myth that this article  rebuts is that it is not necessary to write a five paragraph essay. lastly it is okay to write’I’ in an essay. The article not only clarifies common myths of writing but also explains what are the most vital things that one can not overlook while writing. You have to take in account who’s your audience, what is the context of your assignment, what your message is, what’s the purpose of your writing, and what genres are used. The three most important characteristics of writing  that the article emphasizes on are that you must take in account both sides of the argument, there should be sufficient evidence that you have studied that given topic, and lastly you should not be bias towards an argument based on emotions and feelings.


This article has been most useful to me in terms of writing my own paper. It clarifies all the common myths that i have adapted  throughout  high school. It is such a releif to hear that all my essays dont have to be five paragraphs and that i for a change can use ‘I’ in my writing. Basically this article has helped me realise that i dont have to follow a certain set of rules to write a good piece.  The best piece of advice i gained from this article is that it is okay to hand in a shitty first draft, as long as the final one is not shitty.


Rothman, Joshua. “Why Is Academic Writing So Academic?” The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 16 July 2014. Web. 21 Feb. 2017


This article basically tells us that Academic writing is not a hobby, it is not meant to be enjoyed. Academic writing is mostly informative, meant for a small group of people who can learn something that they hadn’t before. The article tells us how academic writing is often confused by journalism. However, while journalism is also informative, it’s targeted audience are strangers. Where is academic writing is meant for people whore familiar with the topic in hand and are looking for some piece of information that they hadn’t known before.


what i learned from this article is that my academic writing is not meant to be enjoyable, which it never is, and that is okay. All i need to remember is that who my intended audience is and that am i making sure that i am providing them with information that they seek.